Integration of reflexes : RMTi, MNRI, IMP

General overview

Archaic reflexes are reflexes, or involuntary automatic movements. The persistence of reflexes beyond a certain age can be a sign of a developmental disorder. Primary reflexes are primarily controlled by the brain stem since at birth, the maturation of the central nervous system remains incomplete and the myelination present is initially in the subcortical pathways. Subsequently, this myelination will reach the cortico-spinal pathways (cerebral cortex) which will ensure the progressive integration of the primary reflexes and the voluntary control of movements. A developmental disorder or injury to the nervous system (e.g. cerebral palsy, head trauma, stroke, dementia, etc.) can lead to the persistence or re-emergence of primary reflexes, as well as the disruption of the acquisition of motor control and postural reactions that influence the person's level of functioning and autonomy in daily activities (source: wikipedia, see wikipedia fact sheet for more details on reflexes).
 
There are several methods of reflex integration (RMTi, MNRI, IMP in particular).

Rhythmic Movement Training Integration (RMTi)
The RMTi was developed in the 1970s by Kerstin Linde, a Swedish movement specialist who works with children and adults with neurological problems. She studied the role of spontaneous movement in babies at different stages of development from the in-utero period and during the first year of life. 
Dr. Harald Blomberg, a Swedish psychiatrist, then went on to further study the role of movement in development, and the consequences for learning, emotions and behaviour. Moira Dempsey, who specializes in education and movement, and Dr. Blomberg formalized the method in a book on RMT®: "Movements that Heal".

Masgutova Neurosensorimotor Reflex Integration (MNRI) 
The MNRI® method was developed by Dr. Svetlana Masgutova, who has been conducting research on primary movements and their influence on development and learning since 1989.
Her work focuses on the concepts of development and integration of archaic reflexes in order to restore the neurosensory-motor process, facilitate learning and develop emotional balance.

Primary Motor Integration (PMI) 
IMP allows the identification and integration of non-integrated reflexes and reactions using simple and easy to practice movements and remodelling procedures alone or with a partner. 
The effect may be visible at different levels (physical: coordination and posture; cognitive: learning and reflection; emotional, relational...).
IMP was born from the synthesis of different approaches, including Brain gym and other methods for children with DYS disorders in particular. 

Rythmic Movement Training Integration (RMTi)

The RMTi was developed in the 1970s by Kerstin Linde, a Swedish movement specialist who works with children and adults with neurological problems. She studied the role of spontaneous movements of the baby at different stages of its development from the period in utero and during the first year of life. 

Swedish psychiatrist Dr Harald Blomberg then deepened his studies on the role of movement in development, as well as the consequences for learning, emotions and behavior. Moira Dempsey, specialist in education and movement, and Dr Blomberg formalize the method in a book on RMT®: “Movements that Heal”.

 

Masgutova Neurosensorimotor Reflex Integration (MNRI) 

The MNRI® method was developed by Dr Svetlana Masgutova who  has been carrying out research on primary movements and their influences on development and learning since 1989.

His work centers on the concepts of development and integration of archaic reflexes in order to restore the neuro-sensorimotor process, to facilitate learning and to develop emotional balance.

 

Primary Motor Integration (IMP) 

The IMP helps identify and integrate non-integrated reflexes and reactions using simple and easy movements and reshaping procedures to practice alone or with a partner. 

The effect may be visible at different levels (physical: coordination and posture; cognitive: learning and reflection; emotional, relational, etc.).

The IMP was born from the synthesis of different approaches, in particular the Brain gym and other methods for children with DYS disorders in particular.  

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Main objectives of the method

The objective is the integration of persistent reflexes: 

  • Primitive reflexes are similar to automatic movement programs common to the human species. They are triggered by specific sensory stimuli. Their role: protection and survival, brain connections, sensory integration and motor development in the gravitational field.

  • Their evolution goes through 3 stages: an emergence phase, an activation phase and an integration phase. If this evolution is hindered, postural, learning and behavioural deficits will follow.

 
Reintegrating a reflex means putting it back in its place by inhibiting it. It will no longer be active in everyday life, but only there to resurface when needed.

Specificities of the method

RMTi 
Rhythmic Movement Training International (RMTi) explores the role of movement in the natural development of babies at different stages of development:
Before birth
The first six months after birth
When they get up on their hands and knees...
When they learn to walk
These movements are crucial in laying the foundation for neural network growth and myelination in the brain. They are also important for establishing head control, muscle tone and posture, and are the basis for emotional and cognitive brain function.L
Rhythmic training is a movement based reflex integration program, infantile or neonatal, that uses developmental movements, gentle isometric pressure and self-awareness. 
The practitioner begins by assessing the active reflexes and then proposes a series of activities to help the system move from a stressed posture to a more natural and easier movement. 
The session with the practitioner consists of teaching parents the movements to perform with their child. The parents then practice at home for 15 to 30min/day. One session per month with the practitioner allows to evaluate the progress and define the program for the next month.
RMTi movements are based on reproducing the movements that babies do naturally. In RMTi sessions, the practitioner uses these movements (performed passively or actively) to integrate reflexes so that learning, communication, behaviour, emotional and general well-being can be accessed and developed.

MNRI

MNRI® techniques allow to restore neurosensorimotor development to ensure integration :
Primary movements.
Coordination systems.
Archaic reflexes.

Reflex integration exercises can be practiced in three ways:
Passively: The person receives the stimulus that activates sensory and proprioceptive modalities.
Actively by the practitioner: the practitioner applies isometric pressure and invites the person to resist this pressure to activate the sensory-motor modalities of a reflex pattern.
Actively by the person: the person applies pressure against the practitioner's hands to reinforce the sensory-motor modalities and awaken kinesthetic awareness.


IMP 
The session is in three parts:
1. Identify our non-integrated primordial movements and reflexes.
2. Reshape (integrate) the primordial movements and reflexes that need to be integrated.
3. You leave with one or a few movements to do 5 to 10 minutes a day while the work is integrated.
 

Who is this method for ?
  • ADD/ADHD, ASD, Behavioural and Emotional Disorders

  • People with DYS, behavioural disorders, attention deficit disorders, hyperactivity, autistic disorders, and all learning disorders in general.
     

What parents say about it

Sophie's dad (9 years old): 
"... Sophie seemed more at peace and, above all, she got back in touch with the world. In particular, she began to take an interest in her surroundings. »

Scientific references

Primitive Reflexes and Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder: Developmental Origins of Classroom Dysfunction - Myra Taylor, Stephen Houghton and Elaine Chapman - The University of Western Australia - International Journal of Special Education 2004, Vol 19, No1

Reflexes Gone Astray in Autism - Philip Teitelbaum, Osnat B. Teitelbaum, Joshua Fryman, and Ralph Maurer

Rhythm, movement, and autism : using rhythmic rehabilitation research as a model for autism - Michelle W. Hardy and A. Blythe LaGasse - Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience www.frontiersin.org March 2013 Volume 7 Article 19 

Movement analysis in infancy may by useful for early diagnosis of autism - Philip Teitelbaum, Osnat B. Teitelbaum, Joshua Fryman, and Ralph Maurer

Retained Primitive Reflexes and ADHD in Children - Jana Konicarova and Petr Bob - Activitas Nervosa Superior 2012, 54, No. 3-4

Principles of Dissolution and Primitive Reflexes in ADHD - Jana Konicarova & Petr Bob - Activitas Nervosa Superior 2013, 55, No. 1-2

Persisting primitive reflexes in medication-naive girls with attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder - Jana Kornicarova, Petr Bob, Jiri Raboch (Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 19 September 2013)

Primary re fl ex persistence in children with reading dif fi culties (dyslexia): A cross-sectional study. - McPhillips M, Jordan-Black JA. - Neuropsychologia 2007; 45: 748-754

The effect of social disadvantage on motor development in young children: a comparative study. - McPhillips M, Jordan-Black JA. - Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 2007; 48 (12): 1214-1222

The effects of the Primary Movement program on the academic performance of children attending ordinary primary school. - Jordan-Black JA. - Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs 2005; 5 (3): 101-111

Prevalence of persistent primary reflexes and motor problems in children with reading difficulties - McPhillips M, Sheehy N. - Dyslexia 2004; 10 (4): 316-338

Effects of replicating primary-reflex movements on specific reading difficulties in children. - McPhillips M, Hepper PG, Mulhern G. - Lancet 2000; 355: 537-541

The Grasp Reflex and Moro Reflex in Infants: Hierarchy of Primitive Reflex Responses - Yasuyuki Futagi, Yasuhisa Toribe, and Yasuhiro Suzuki Department of Pediatric Neurology, Osaka Medical Center and Research Institute for Maternal and Child Health, 840 Murodo-cho, Izumi, Osaka 594 -1101, Japan

Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, Vol. 31, No. 4, August 2003, pp. 359–370 

Motor deficits in children with autism spectrum disorder: a cross-syndrome study. Autism research., 7 (6). pp. 664-676. McPhillips, M. and Finlay, J. and Bejerot, S. and Hanley, M. (2014)

Primitive Reflexes and Postural Reactions in the Neurodevelopmental ExaminationPrimitive Reflexes and Postural Reactions in the Neurodevelopmental Examination Dimitrios I. Zafeiriou, MD, PhD - Pediatr Neurol. 2004 Jul; 31 (1): 1-8

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