Neuro-modulation technologies

Why ?

  • If certain areas of the brain are functioning at too high or too low a frequency than that which corresponds to its current activity, it cannot perform this task properly. For example, ADHD children often have excess slow waves in specific areas of the brain.

  • Brain plasticity is a natural chemical, electrical and physical process, especially in children, but it can be stimulated

How? 'Or' What ?

  • Optimize brain activity by normalizing brain frequencies

  • Stimulate cerebral plasticity (especially in adults), to strengthen the effectiveness of sessions, accelerate the integration of learning

  • Strengthen the activity of certain neural circuits

What approaches?

  1. Mapping of brain activity by quantitative EEG

  2. Neurofeedback (EEG) training

  3. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS): Magstim

  4. Transcranial electrical stimulation (tDCS)

  5. Vagus nerve stimulation 

  6. Low intensity laser stimulation: QRI (Quantum reflex integration)

  7. Electrical stimulation by the PoNS device

Main scientific publications

EEG Power Spectrum Analysis in Children with ADHD , Kamida & Shimabayashi, Yonago Acta Med. 2016

Clinical neurofeedback: case studies, proposed mechanism, and implications for pediatric neurology practice , J Child Neurol. 2011

Neuromodulation integrating rTMS and neurofeedback for the treatment of autism spectrum disorder: An exploratory study , Sokhadze, El-Baz. 2014

A review of neurofeedback treatment for pediatric ADHD , Lofthouse, Arnold LE, Department of Psychiatry, The Ohio State University, 2010

Neurofeedback of Slow Cortical Potentials in Children with Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder: A Multicenter Randomized Trial Controlling for Unspecific Effects , Strehl, Ute et al. 2017

Meta-analysis of EEG biofeedback in treating epilepsy , Tan G1, Thornby J, 2009

Is neurofeedback an efficacious treatment for ADHD? A randomized controlled clinical trial . Gevensleben et al. (2009). Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 50, 780–789

Safety of noninvasive brain stimulation in children and adolescents , Krishnan C., Santos L., 2014

Neuromodulation and Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: a 21st Century Paradigm for Therapeutics in Psychiatry , John P. O'Reardon, MD

rTMS neuromodulation improves electrocortical functional measures of information processing and behavioral responses in autism , Estate M. Sokhadze, Ayman S. El-Baz, 2014

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) therapy for autism: an international consensus conference held in conjunction with the international meeting for autism research , Oberman LM, Enticott PG, 2014

Editorial: The safety and efficacy of noninvasive brain stimulation in development and neurodevelopmental disorders , Oberman L. and Enticott P.

Transcutaneous Vagus Nerve Stimulation: A Promising Method for Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorders , Jin Y, Kong J

Transcranial direct current stimulation facilitates associative learning and alters functional connectivity in the primate brain Krause et al. | 2017 | Current Biology

Cooperation not competition: bihemispheric tDCS and fMRI show role for ipsilateral hemisphere in motor learning Waters, Wiestler, and Diedrichsen | 2017 | Journal of Neuroscience

Basic and functional effects of transcranial electrical stimulation: An introduction , Yavari et al. | 2017 | Neuroscience & Biobehavioral 

Preconditioning tDCS facilitates subsequent tDCS effect on skill acquisition in older adults Fujiyama et al. | 2017 | Neurobiology of Aging

Cross-education of muscular strength is facilitated by homeostatic plasticity Frazer et al. | 2017 | European journal of Applied Physiology

Brain plasticity and the concept of metaplasticity in skilled musicians Altenmuller and Furuya | 2016 | Progress in Motor Control

Impact of transcranial direct current stimulation on neuronal functions , Das et al. | 2016 | Frontiers in Neuroscience

Modulating motor learning through transcranial direct current stimulation Ammann, Spampinato, and Marquez-Ruiz | 2016 | Frontiers in Psychology

Safety of transcranial direct current stimulation: Evidence based update 2016 , Bikson et al. | 2016 | Brain Stimulation

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over primary motor cortex leg area promotes dynamic balance task performance Kaminski et al. | 2016 | Clinical Neurophysiology

Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation boosts synaptic plasticity and memory in mice via epigenetic regulation of bdnf expression Podda et al. | 2016 | 

Transcranial direct current stimulation facilitates motor learning post-stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis Kang, Summers, and Cauraugh | 2015 | 

Transcranial direct current stimulation of the premotor cortex: Effects on hand dexterity , Pavlova et al. | 2014 | Brain Research

Dual-hemisphere transcranial direct current stimulation over primary motor cortex enhances consolidation of a ballistic thumb movement Koyama et al. | 2014 | 

Effects of different electrical brain stimulation protocols on subcomponents of motor skill learning Prichard et al. | 2014 | Brain Stimulation

Does anodal transcranial direct current stimulation enhance excitability of the motor cortex and motor function in healthy individuals and subjects with stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis Bastani and Jaberzadeh | 2012 | Clinical Neurophysiology

Bihemispheric brain stimulation facilitates motor recovery in chronic stroke patients Lindenberg et al. | 2010 | Neurology

 

Partial synthesis

If the brain is operating at a frequency that is too high or too low compared to that which corresponds to its activity, it cannot perform this task properly.

  • Studies show that ADHD children operate with an excess of slow waves (theta and delta), ADHD children differ from the average (vs. children of the same age) by the absolute values of theta and the theta / beta ratio at Cz (one of the brain areas).

  • Some children with ADHD become hyperactive in an attempt to wake up and counteract the effects of slow brain waves. Paradoxically, movement helps them focus because it helps them activate beta waves.

 

Neurofeedback

Self-regulation of brain activity is possible thanks to neurofeedback

  • The American Academy of Pediatrics has classified neurofeedback “Level 1 intervention” for the treatment of ADHD disorders. 

  • The National Institute of Health lists over 8,500 peer-reviewed publications on biofeedback and 450 on neurofeedback.

  • Different scientific publications have concluded that “Neurofeedback produces a significant improvement in the main symptoms of ADHD (equivalent to the effects produced by MPH (methylphenidate), according to parents' reports)”.

 

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

This non-invasive stimulation stimulates brain activity, with positive results in reducing disorders or accelerating improvement in performance, in association with other treatments.

Wave Nerve Stimulation

Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) has been used for over 20 years as a non-pharmacological treatment for epilepsy. Non-invasive stimulation is now possible and more easily accessible to patients.